Nfree electron laser theory pdf files

Theory and practice of free electron lasers particle accelerator school day 1 dinh nguyen, steven russell. Dumping the highpower electron beam is wasteful and creates radiation hazards e dump is beam energy before the beam dump. Due to their wide range tunabilty and high brghtness they have a growing applications. This field has exploded in recent years with the development of nextgeneration xray sources, such as free electron. It was realised, however, that the behaviour of low gain fels were. Freeelectron laser an overview sciencedirect topics. Pdf introduction to the physics of free electron laser. The physics of free electron lasers evgeny saldin springer. Freeelectron laser wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Lectures on the free electron laser theory and related topics. We show that a freeelectron laser oscillator generating x rays with wavelengths of about 1 a is feasible using ultralow emittance electron beams of a multigev energyrecovery linac, combined. This makes it desirable to have a theoretical treatment accessible to nonspecialists and students.

Hopf f, kuper t, moore g and scully m 1980 the free electron laser from a laser physics perspective phys. A motivation and introduction b theoretical approach c. A freeelectron laser fel operating in the quantum regime can provide a compact and monochromatic xray source. The essential features of the theory of the free electron laser fel are given in some detail. Free electron lasers are laser devices where light amplification occurs by interaction with fast electrons in an undulator. A free electron laser, or fel, is a laser that produces a very bright beam of light.

The high gain fel based on the principle of self amplified spontaneous emission is treated on a qualitative level. Handout 2 sommerfeld model for metals free fermion gas. Basic physical processes and principles of free electron. The spent electron beams still have 99% of the initial energy. S u trajectory length of one undulator period otherwise energy exchange cancels over many periods. The term free electron laser fel will be used, in this paper, to indicate a wide collection of devices aimed at providing coherent electromagnetic radiation from a beam of free electrons. We describe femtosecond xray diffraction data sets of viruses and nanoparticles collected at the linac coherent light source. Fels based on jefferson labs superconducting electronaccelerating technology are being developed to process plastics, synthetic fibers, advanced materials, and metals as.

The free electron lasers fels was invented by by j. A freeelectron laser, or fel, is a laser that produces a very bright beam of light. Laser mode laser field laser action free electron laser moving frame these keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. For example, in the ir region, a pulsed optical parametric oscillator tunable over the 1,4501,800 cm. Osa femtosecond freeelectron laser xray diffraction. A free electron laser fel is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of veryhighspeed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure, hence the term free electron. The fel also provides ultraviolet laser light, including vacuum ultraviolet light, and is also a source of terahertz light. Lectures on the free electron laser theory and related. Us navy plans for scaling free electron lasers to megawatt. A freeelectron laser fel, is a type of laser that uses veryhighspeed electrons that move freely through a magnetic structure, 1 hence the term free electron. It is a powerful and challenging combination of particle accelerator and laser physics and technology. The effects on ifel acceleration with respect to the variation of the laser electric field, the input. Free electron lasers lecture i brian mcneil, university of strathclyde, glasgow, scotland.

His current research interests include the theory and design of novel optical resonators for highresolution free electron laser spectroscopy, xray generation and highfield physics. Electron injectors chapter chapter chapter chapter chapter chapter chapter. Osa femtosecond freeelectron laser xray diffraction data. The theory describes the electron beam as a moving plasma dielectric, and assumes that the electron beam interacts with an evanescent mode traveling along the surface of a periodic waveguide with a rectangular pro. A high energy laser hel weapon system is an excellent candidate to fulfill this diverse role. Colson w b 1990 classical free electron laser theory laser handbook vol 6.

A freeelectron laser consists of an electron beam propagating through a periodic magnetic field. The free electron laser is tunable and has the widest frequency range of any laser type, 3 currently ranging in wavelength from microwaves, through terahertz. Due to the coherent emission, very large intensities. However, there exist many nearerterm potential naval applications for kilowattclass solidstate laser ssl and highpower microwave hpm weapons. The nearlyfree electron model university of oxford. So we can write the full quantum state of the electron as follows. A free electron laser fel is a linear accelerator that is designed to produce very fast bursts of light with extremely high peak brightness. It shares the same optical properties as conventional lasers such as emitting a beam consisting of coherent electromagnetic radiation which can reach high power. Freeelectron laser simple english wikipedia, the free. Free electron lasers produced by the resonant interaction of a relativistic electron beam with a photon beam in an undulator tunable, powerful, coherent radiation sources 1977 first operation of a freeelectron laser at stanford university today 22 freeelectron lasers operating worldwide 19 fels proposed or in construction. How a quantum laser works an external source of energy excites electrons from the ground state to an. Pdf introduction to the physics of free electron laser and. Lectures on the free electron laser theory and related topics g. In this paper the physical process of new type of coherent.

It was developed in 1927, principally by arnold sommerfeld, who combined the classical drude model with quantum mechanical fermidirac statistics and hence it is also known as the drudesommerfeld model. The free electron laser fel will be an outstanding tool for research and industrial application. Hopf f, kuper t, moore g and scully m 1980 the freeelectron laser from a laserphysics perspective phys. The quantum freeelectron laser university of strathclyde.

Fel 2017 will focus on recent advances in free electron laser theory, experiments, electron beam, photon beam and undulator technologies, and some applications of free electron lasers. In solidstate physics, the free electron model is a simple model for the behaviour of charge carriers in a metallic solid. A formula is derived for the smallsignal gain of a smithpurcell freeelectron laser. Pelligrini, introduction to the physics of the free electron laser, laser handbook, vol. E r,t 2 em wave is faster than electron, but periodic interaction if waveelectron slippage is one wavelength per undulator period v s c u l u. Path to understanding nobel symposium on free electron laser research june 14 18, 2015 sigtuna, sweden john m. Sasefreeelectron laser short pulse sasefreeelectron laser wavelength range, nm 10. In terms of weaponization, the fel free electron laser is the laser device of choice and holy grail for weaponization in the 2020 time frame. Basic physical processes and principles of free electron lasers fels dagnachew w. Should a given lattice support enzyme turnover, initiating the reaction in crystallo is perhaps the ideal means to monitor the structural dynamics of enzyme catalysis. Some of the radiation can be extracted using an outcoupling hole in one of the mirrors. The free electron laser fel is a natural alternative as a radiation source national research council, 1982. A simplified description of xray freeelectron lasers.

Introduction to the physics of free electron laser and comparison. Jefferson labs freeelectron laser is the worlds highestpower tunable infrared laser and was developed using the labs expertise in superconducting radiofrequency srf accelerators. Lasers springer, 1999, more sase but much more technical. Saldin, schneidmiller, yurkov, the physics of free electron. Given its simplicity, it is surprisingly successful in. This book describes the physical fundamentals on the basis of classical mechanics, electrodynamics, and the kinetic theory of charged particle beams, and will be suitable for graduate students and scientists alike. We show that a free electron laser oscillator generating x rays with wavelengths of about 1 a is feasible using ultralow emittance electron beams of a multigev energyrecovery linac, combined.

Pdf this report is a primer introduction on the sources of coherent syncrotron radiation from fels compared to conventional lasers. A new spectrum of opportunities for manufacturing and for basic research. Andreas ringwald fundamental physics at free electron lasers, psi20, 812 september 20 page 11 pair creation from electron beam crossed with laser beam slac e144 studied nonlinear compton and stimulated pair production in the collision of a 46. Free electron lasers are very ixible sources of coherent radiation. In 1998 he joined the faculty of the university of hawaii where he is currently an associate professor of physics. Workie department of physics university of cincinnati cincinnati, ohio 45221 november 26, 01 abstract a tunable coherent and high peak power sources have been very usefull in many applications.

The laser is a device which is today used in a wide list of fields. Introduction to free electron lasers and fourthgeneration. Experimental and numerical studies of the inverse free electron laser using a gwlevel 10. Fels based on jefferson labs superconducting electronaccelerating technology are being developed to process plastics.

In 1997 the navy distanced itself from supporting the free electron laser as a tool that could shoot. Introduction to free electron lasers the nature of light gaussian beam laser beam emittance. In 1997 the navy distanced itself from supporting the freeelectron laser as a tool that could shoot. Novel electron accelerator techniques can be used to create free electron lasers in a wide wave length interval extending to the xray region, i. Fels make some of the most brilliant light sources ever made by humankind. The optical resonator with macroscopic dimensions that could store significant optical power at short wavelengths was crucial to the invention of the laser. Properties and prospects1 gunnar ingelman and kai siegbahn uppsala university abstract. The freeelectron laser is tunable and has the widest frequency range of any laser type, currently ranging in wavelength from microwaves, through terahertz radiation and infrared, to the visible spectrum, ultraviolet. A free electron laser consists of an electron beam propagating through a periodic magnetic field. In this thesis we developed a three dimensional 3d quantum theory for a fel with a laser wiggler, based on a discrete wigner function formalism taking into account the longitudinal momentum quantization. Free electron laser page of the world wide web virtual library this is a collection of web resources. Freeelectron lasers fels offer substantial cost and capability advantages including advantages for highvolume materials processing over other manufacturing tools. A critical analysis of experimental challenges and theoretical limits.

His current research interests include the theory and design of novel optical resonators for highresolution freeelectron laser spectroscopy, xray generation and. A free electron laser fel operating in the quantum regime can provide a compact and monochromatic xray source. Beginning with an explanation of the basic gain mechanism, the lectures continue with a discussion. Xray freeelectron lasers xfels are finally a reality. Classical theory of freeelectron lasers book iopscience. A free electron laser is a generator of tunable, coherent, high power radiation from millimeter through ultraviolet wavelengths. The data establish the first large benchmark data sets for coherent diffraction methods freely available to the public, to bolster the development of algorithms that are essential for developing this novel approach as a useful imaging technique. Rp photonics encyclopedia free electron lasers, fel. New theoretical calculations show that an xray free electron laser pulse can generate transitions in excited nuclei via an indirect process involving electron capture. Choosing the required parameters laser resonators for fels fel output characteristics fel vs conventional laser current trends. New theoretical calculations show that an xray freeelectronlaser pulse can generate transitions in excited nuclei via an indirect process involving electron capture.

Each electron emits a wave train with n u cycles 1n u n u. Introduction to free electron lasers and fourthgeneration light. Today such lasers are used for research in materials science, chemical technology, biophysical. Introduction many of the early theoretical studies of free electron lasers low gain were quantum mechanical see e.

The very first electromagnetic radiation amplifier was built with ammonia in the range of microwaves and was called maser, for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. On the theory of the free electron laser springerlink. Free electron lasers produced by the resonant interaction of a relativistic electron beam with a photon beam in an undulator tunable, powerful, coherent radiation sources 1977 first operation of a free electron laser at stanford university today 22 free electron lasers operating worldwide 19 fels proposed or in construction. Physics freeelectron lasers trigger nuclear transitions. The fel used operating principles to form the beam that are very different operating principles of a conventional. Since the electron beam acts as the gain medium in an fel, the pulse format of. The free electron laser fel will be an outstanding tool for research and. When someone refers to the bandstructure of a crystal they are generally talking about its electronic dispersion, ek i.

Laser is an acronim for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. A free electron laser fel, is a type of laser that uses veryhighspeed electrons that move freely through a magnetic structure, 1 hence the term free electron as the lasing medium. Moreover, tunable radiation sources are not perfectly monochromatic. Successive electron bunches interact with the radiation stored in the undulator, leading to an increase in the radiation power, and to microbunching in the electron bunches. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Sase free electron laser short pulse sase free electron laser wavelength range, nm 10. Until recently fels have been operating at infrared or near ultraviolet wavelengths. The realization of a free electron laser fel operating in the quantum regime could provide a compact and monochromatic xray source. If you want to obtain moving images of highspeed molecular processes at an atomic scale, one of the best facilities in the world is the xray free electron laser xfel at stanford university.

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